Relational Data Model: Concept, Constraints, Advantages: The relational data model can be defined as the database that displays a cluster of relations between tables of values. There is a collection of data values represented by each row in the table that denotes a real-world relationship.

Also See: Relational Calculus in DBMS with forms Domain and Tuple

Relational Data Model: Concept, Constraints, Advantages

In this post, we are going to talk about the relational data model in DBMS with proper explanation. Stick with us until for ensuring that nothing gets missed in any manner.

What are the major Relational Model Concepts?

There are lots of important relational model concepts that we want to mention. Have a look at the major ones below in detail:

  • Attribute

Attributes can be defined as the properties using which a relation is defined. Some of the prominent examples are NAME, Student, Roll number, etc. 

  • Tables

There is a table format used for saving relations in the table format along with the entities. The two main properties of the table are rows and columns. Attributes are represented by columns, whereas rows are used for representing rows.

  • Tuple

Many people usually get confused about the tuple in the relational data model. However, they are just a single row of a table where a single record is kept.

Also See: Explain Keys in DBMS

  • Relation Schema

The name of the relation along with the necessary attributes is represented with the help of a relation schema.

  • Degree

The degree of relation can be defined as the quantity of attributes in the relation.

  • Cardinality

The exact number of rows located in the table is called cardinality.

  • Column

The required set of values for a particular attribute is represented by a column.

  • Relation Instance

Relation Instance means a finite sequence of tuples in the relational database management system. There are no duplicate tuples in a relation instance.

  • Relation Key

There are one, two, or multiple attributes in a row that is named as relation key.

  • Attribute Domain

The attribute domain is the pre-defined value and scope that present in every attribute.

What are the relational model constraints?

Allow us to describe the constraints on the relational model below:

  • Schema-based Constraints

 The constraints that specify the database with the help of DDL is known as schema-based constraints.They are further divided into entity integrity constraints, key constraints, domain constraints, and referential integrity constraints.

  • Inherent Model-Based Constraints

The inherent model-based constraints are those implicated in a data model. Such databases don’t have duplicate tuples.

Also See: What is Cardinality in DBMS

  • Application Based Constraints

These constraints can’t be implemented when the database schema is defined in application programs.

What are the main objectives of the relational model?

The main objectives of relational models are mentioned below in detail:

  • Relational models enable a high degree of data independence without affecting the application programs. It usually caused due to altering internal data representation.
  • Providing particular grounds to deal with reliability, data semantics, and redundancy issues. The concept of normalized relations was introduced by Codd’s theory for the relational model.
  • Expanding the set-oriented data manipulation languages in the system.

Major operations in the relational data model

There are four basic operations in the relational database model we have mentioned below:

  • Insert

The values of the attribute for a new tuple are provided using the insert operation. It is further inserted into a relation for completing the operation.

  • Update

This operation is performed for updating the status in the model. For example, you have to change the status from inactive to active. There will be a need to use the update operation in that case.

  • Delete Operation

The tuple is deleted using this operation on the basis of relation attributes.

  • Select Operation

This operation is used for selecting a specific tuple in the model.

We believe that the readers should go in deep sights to know what advantages and disadvantages offered by a relational data model.

Advantages of  Relational data model

Let’s have a look at the advantages of relational data model below:

  • Network Access

A relational data model includes a software program and server daemon that is mainly created for gathering requests and then sending over a network. It boosts the communication between the database and database clients appropriately. There is no need to log in to the computer system for using the database.

Also See: Set Operations in SQL

  • Language

As we all know, there is a standard language supported by RDBMS with whom the majority of people are familiar, i.e., SQL. It is mainly due to the simplification of SQL syntax. The keywords and phrasing are implemented by it in the language. It results in more natural learning and interpretation.

  • Data Structure

The data is structured in a better way with the help of the table format that allows the users to understand it easily. All these things make the process simplified to use. Also, the natural structure is used for better organization of data access and data organization.


Apart from benefits, there are many disadvantages possessed by the relational data model that we have mentioned below:

  • Expensive

A significant disadvantage associated with the relational data model is high cost. Maintaining and setting up such a database system demand lots of money. The reason behind that there is a need for buying a certain software for setting up a relational database.

  • Structured Limits

The majority of relational databases have certain limits in terms of field lengths. There is a need to mention the data amount while designing the database. The data loss can be caused when search queries stay shorter than reality.

What are the key facts about the relational data model?

There are lots of facts we want our readers to know about the relational data model. Have a look at them we mentioned below:

  • The database schema is implemented using a relational data model in the relational database.
  • It is also known with the name of a record-based model because the data is stored in the tuples of different types.
  • Things like tuples/ records/ entities are indicated by a column in the table.
  • There is a relational database created together with the help of different relations.
  • There are certain constraints in the database schema and data values in the relational model.

Also See: Database Architecture in DBMS with Diagram


That’s all; we have to mention about the relational data model in this post. We believe that there is very useful information gained by the readers through it. If there is a query in your mind regarding this article, write about it in the comment section. Our expert team will reach you as soon as possible.

So it was all about Relational Data Model: Concept, Constraints, Advantages. If you have any doubt then please comment below.

Relational Data Model: Concept, Constraints, AdvantagesSumit ThakurUncategorizedRelational Data Model: Concept, Constraints, Advantages: The relational data model can be defined as the database that displays a cluster of relations between tables of values. There is a collection of data values represented by each row in the table that denotes a real-world relationship. Also See: Relational Calculus in...Let's Define DBMS